An airborne lidar survey precocious revealed hundreds of long-lost Maya and Olmec ceremonial sites successful confederate Mexico. The 32,800-square-mile country was surveyed by the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geográfia, which made the information public. When University of Arizona archaeologist Takeshi Inomata and his colleagues examined the area, which spans the Olmec heartland on the Bay of Campeche and the occidental Maya Lowlands conscionable northbound of the Guatemalan border, they identified the outlines of 478 ceremonial sites that had been mostly hidden beneath vegetation oregon were simply excessively ample to admit from the ground.
“It was unthinkable to survey an country this ample until a fewer years ago,” said Inomata. “Publicly disposable lidar is transforming archaeology.”
Over the past respective years, lidar surveys person revealed tens of thousands of irrigation channels, causeways, and fortresses crossed Maya territory, which present spans the borders of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize. Infrared beams tin penetrate dense foliage to measurement the tallness of the ground, which often reveals features similar long-abandoned canals oregon plazas. The results person shown that Maya civilization was much extensive, and much densely populated, than we antecedently realized.
The recent survey suggests that the Maya civilization whitethorn person inherited immoderate of its taste ideas from the earlier Olmecs, who thrived on the coastal plains of confederate Mexico from astir 1500 BC to astir 400 BC.
The oldest known Maya monument is besides the largest; 3,000 years ago, radical built a 1.4-kilometer-long earthen level astatine the bosom of a ceremonial halfway called Aguada Fenix, adjacent what is present Mexico’s borderline with Guatemala. And the 478 recently rediscovered sites that dot the surrounding portion stock the aforesaid basal features and layout arsenic Aguada Fenix, conscionable connected a smaller scale. They’re built astir rectangular plazas, lined with rows of earthen platforms, wherever ample groups of radical would erstwhile person gathered for rituals.
Inomata and his colleagues accidental the sites were astir apt built successful the centuries betwixt 1100 BC (around the aforesaid clip arsenic Aguada Fenix) and 400 BC. Their operation was apt the enactment of divers groups of radical who shared immoderate communal taste ideas, similar however to physique a ceremonial halfway and the value of definite dates. At astir of the sites, wherever the terrain allowed, those platform-lined gathering spaces are aligned to constituent astatine the spot connected the skyline wherever the prima rises connected definite days of the year.
“This means they were representing cosmological ideas done these ceremonial spaces,” said Inomata. “In this space, radical gathered according to this ceremonial calendar.” The dates vary, but they each look linked to May 10, the day erstwhile the prima passes straight overhead, marking the commencement of the rainy play and the clip for planting maize. Many of the 478 ceremonial sites constituent to sunrise connected dates precisely 40, 80, oregon 100 days earlier that date.